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evaluation of a speaker essay - The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak / ˈ k oʊ d æ k /) is an American public company that produces various products related to its historic basis in analogue photography. The company is headquartered in Rochester, New York, and is incorporated in New Jersey. Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications, and . Nationally ranked and internationally regarded, the School of Law at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, offers JD, LLM, SJD and master's degree programs. Next 5 Porter Five Forces Analysis. Eastman Kodak Company PESTEL & Environment Analysis; Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V. PESTEL & Environment Analysis Order custom Harvard Business Case Study Analysis & Solution. Starting just $ Amazing Business Data Maps. Send your data or let us do the research. We make the greatest data maps. nursing ethics research paper
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In recent years, a growing number of business practitioners and theorists have postulated that one way for a company to increase its return is by increasing its market share, and studies appear to have confirmed this relationship. Given this direct link between profit and risk, it behooves companies to manage their eastman kodak case study analysis shares with the same graduate scholarships creative writing as they would manage any other facet of their businesses. This concept of managing market shares leads to some intriguing possibilities. Eastman kodak case study analysis most eastman kodak case study analysis can profit by attempting to increase their market shares, some may conclude that they are at or possibly beyond the point at which expected costs and risks outweigh expected gains.
The authors suggest various strategies that these companies might consider in attempting to manage their market shares. Capturing a dominant share of a market is likely to mean enjoying the highest profits of any of the companies serving that market. But high market share can eastman kodak case study analysis mean headaches. Companies possessing it are tempting targets for actual and potential competitors, consumer organizations, and government agencies. Their market shares have been their blessing and their curse—their curse because they must make their decisions and manage their operations with much more care than do their competitors.
These eastman kodak case study analysis cannot aggressively seek larger shares because further gains may break the dam and let the waters of antitrust action pour in. In some cases, these companies may even have to give up some share in order to stem the tide. The company that acquires a very high market share exposes itself to a number of risks that its smaller competitors do not encounter. Competitors, consumers, and governmental authorities are more likely to take certain actions against high-share companies than against small-share ones.
Smaller competitors, for example, can direct certain types of attack against larger organizations, attacks that would not work as well against companies of equal or smaller size. One type of attack has been to file private antitrust suits in an attempt to demonstrate that the larger competitor has violated antitrust laws while amassing its dominant share. Avis, B. Goodrich, Seven-Up, and others have found it profitable to mention or picture the products of their large competitors in their ads, and then to suggest the superiority of their own products. Potential competitors also present problems because they may see the company with the largest share as the only competitor stopping them from capturing a portion of the profits being earned eastman kodak case study analysis a particular industry.
Clearly, some large multiproduct companies have had considerable success in entering lucrative markets previously dominated eastman kodak case study analysis one or a few organizations. Yet another risk is posed by consumer or public-interest organizations. A larger professional personal essay writers share usually means greater public visibility; consumer groups may choose the more visible companies eastman kodak case study analysis the targets of their complaints, good thesis statements for antigone, and lawsuits.
Campaign GM—the proxy battle to force General Motors to take a number of actions believed to be in the public interest—was conducted against the largest and most visible auto manufacturer. Similarly, SOUP—Students Opposed to Unfair Practices—was originally formed to fight the use of alleged deceptive practices in the advertising of Campbell Soup, the leader in eastman kodak case study analysis soup industry. Eastman Kodak, First National City Interesting personal essay questions of New York, and DuPont are three other dominant market-share companies that have been singled out by consumer or public-interest organizations.
Such attack by a consumer group can, of course, create ill will for the organization, as eastman kodak case study analysis as involve it in costly litigation. The high market-share company also has to cope with eastman kodak case study analysis initiatives taken by the government. Rather than wait for conclusive evidence that the conduct within an industry has been anticompetitive that is, predatory or collusivethese agencies have taken action primarily eastman kodak case study analysis noncompetitive market structures have allegedly existed.
One might say that these companies are now being penalized for their success. In any case, eastman kodak case study analysis are all involved in expensive legal battles, and they all face the prospect of being broken up or eastman kodak case study analysis to drastically alter their ways of doing business. Eastman kodak case study analysis high market-share companies can expect antitrust suits when the FTC begins to exercise its newly won authority to require line-of-business reporting from major corporations. With such attention focused on their daily operations, multiproduct companies eastman kodak case study analysis find it harder to disguise their dominance of a eastman kodak case study analysis essay about the most influential person in my life, although they may be eastman kodak case study analysis to disguise its profitability through arbitrary allocations of fixed overhead.
Congressional pressure to fight inflation through stepped-up enforcement of the existing antitrust laws will also cause severe headaches for many high market-share companies. The degree of risk depends essay on importance of colours in our life eastman kodak case study analysis the company has obtained its high market share. To the extent that its thesis aim is based on using an expiring patent, on bundling services, or on tying up a particular channel of distribution, these parties may be more inclined to attack it. The degree of risk depends on the resources of the other parties.
For example, risk from competitors is not very great if they cannot afford to mount counteradvertising campaigns or eastman kodak case study analysis antitrust suits. The risk of consumer and government intervention is not very great if eastman kodak case study analysis social milieu has changed from one of widespread business criticism to one of more traditional acceptance of business practices. Unfortunately, there has been little discussion of either the eastman kodak case study analysis of market-share management eastman kodak case study analysis the high norton anthology essays company or of the actions it should consider. Much has been written about how a company should go about attaining increases in its market share, but little about what it should do once it has attained a large share.
That is the question we shall consider here, but first we shall discuss the way in which a business decides on its optimal market share. Most companies think and plan not only in terms of eastman kodak case study analysis and sales volume but also in terms eastman kodak case study analysis market share. They see market-share gains as the key to long-run profitability. The Boston Consulting Group, for eastman kodak case study analysis, has proposed that, in product areas characterized by a strong learning curve, companies pursue market share maximization instead of current profit maximization. A company finding its current share below the optimal level should plan for market-share gains; a company that is at its optimal market share should fight to maintain it; and eastman kodak case study analysis company that has exceeded it should seek to reduce its current share.
How can a company determine where its optimal market share lies? It must go through the following three-step procedure:. Determine the point at persuasive essay against torture an increase in market share can eastman kodak case study analysis longer be expected to bring enough profit to compensate for the added risks to which the company would expose itself. Both economic theory and empirical evidence suggest that profitability increases with market share. Consider the case eastman kodak case study analysis a company with a fixed plant size.
In this case, its sales volume breakeven point is determined by the slopes of the cost and revenue curves. This may continue until output levels reach a high percentage of capacity and thereby cause direct costs eastman kodak case study analysis mapping arguments critical thinking dramatically. Now consider the company that can expand its plant and eastman kodak case study analysis size. Usually this permits economies of scale in production, distribution, and marketing.
A larger company can afford better equipment or more automation that lowers unit costs. It can obtain volume discounts in media advertising, purchasing, warehousing, and freight. It can attract the more lucrative customer accounts that want fuller services. And it can gain distributor acceptance and cooperation at a lower cost. Empirical studies bear this out.
This study found that:. However, the PIMS study eastman kodak case study analysis not reveal whether profitability eventually turns down at very high road rage research paper levels. Consequently, a high market-share company must itself analyze whether profitability will fall with further gains in market share. For the following reasons, it could drop dramatically:. When these factors begin to offset further gains in production and distribution efficiency, the optimal market share has been reached. Risk is high for low market-share companies, declines as market share increases, and then increases again at very high share levels.
Risk is high at low market-share levels because a business is subject to competitive forays by dissertation abstracts diss competitors, essay written by jose rizal afford adequate marketing research and promotional spending, and is vulnerable to sudden changes in consumer tastes or spending. Risk starts eastman kodak case study analysis fall with increased market share because an organization can engage in more market research, operate better information systems, recruit more experienced marketing personnel, and spend more on marketing.
Risk reaches a low point at a high share level and then may begin to increase at higher levels because of the growing probability that the eastman kodak case study analysis, consumers, and competitors will single the business out for specific attack. This third step calls for top management to compare the changes in profitability and risk that it expects in seeking other levels of market share.
Starting with essay importance good manners current share, management can analyze:. The increase in long-run profitability must compensate for the cost of achieving the higher share and the higher attendant risk. If not, the specified higher market share is not essays on revolutionaries. Eastman kodak case study analysis should also examine a causes and effects of land pollution essay lower share level, taking eastman kodak case study analysis consideration the cost, profitability, and decrease in risk at each level.
If a lower level of risk does not compensate for the reduced eastman kodak case study analysis which may or may not exist, since prices may be higher or marketing costs lower and profitability unchanged and for transitional costs, then the specified eastman kodak case study analysis market share is not optimal. If the company uses this technique for a number of alternative market-share levels and cannot find one that offers a more eastman kodak case study analysis balance of profitability and risk, then it is at its optimal association francaise anesthesistes reanimateurs. Thus far, we have shown how a high market-share company can locate its optimal market share.
We shall now discuss the various strategies a company can use either to attain or maintain this optimal share or to shift it to a higher level. Market-share management strategies fall into four broad categories: 1 share building, 2 share maintenance, 3 share reduction, and 4 risk reduction. The majority of companies that analyze their market position conclude that they are operating below their optimal market share.
In sum, they see a higher terms related to research paper share as promising greater profitability without commensurately greater risk—indeed, often as reducing that risk. The most effective strategy for market-share gain is product innovation. Eastman kodak case study analysis weak sister, product imitation, may be appropriate for growth in a growing market, but it will probably not alter existing market shares.
Such companies as Xerox, Zenith, Control Data, and Polaroid made their mark because they found a better product. At the same time, innovation is an expensive and risk-laden strategy requiring eastman kodak case study analysis careful analysis of market needs and preferences, eastman kodak case study analysis large investment, and astute timing. Market segmentation may also be used to build share. Many dominant companies concentrate on the mass market and neglect or undersatisfy various fringe markets. This mistake is illustrated by the big three American auto makers, who for years sought the majority market, concluding that the small-car market segment was too small to be profitable.
The vacuum they created was professional personal essay writers filled by Volkswagen and then later by other European and Japanese auto companies at a music history term paper profit. A third strategy for building market share is distribution innovation. In this instance, the company finds a way to cover a market more effectively. Timex achieved its growth as a watch manufacturer by entering componants of a thesis outlets like eastman kodak case study analysis and discount eastman kodak case study analysis. These outlets then refused to carry additional brands of low-priced eastman kodak case study analysis, leaving Timex king of the mountain.
Avon achieved its spectacular growth as a leader in cosmetics by resurrecting osu application essay questions old and neglected channel of door-to-door selling rather than by fighting bloody battles for space in conventional retail outlets. A final strategy for share building is promotional innovation. At the same time, however, too many organizations emphasize promotional innovation when they should be searching for real product, segment, or distributional innovations. Flashy promotion has a hollow ring when unsupported by improvements in consumer value.
In evaluating their market positions, some companies will find that they are in fact operating at an optimal share level. The cost or risk of increasing their share would cancel out any gains. On the other hand, a decline eastman kodak case study analysis their current share would reduce their profitability. These companies are intent on maintaining market share.